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发布时间:2020-02-25 00:00:00
长沙捷凯生物制品有限公司
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Artemisia annua Extract, Wormwood Extract

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Artemisia annua Extract, Wormwood Extract

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产品编号
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产品描述
规格:
99.5% Artemisnin, 99% Dihydroartemisinin,99% Artesunate, 99% Artemether
拉丁名:
Artemisia annua L.
使用部位:
Leaf and Upper Portion
检测方法:
HPLC
CAS编号:
63968-64-9, 71939-50-9, 83507-69-1, 71963-77-4
主要功能:
Malaria treatment, Parasite treatment, Cancer treatment

Brief Introduction

Synonyms--- Sweet Wormwood, Sweet Annie, Sweet Sagewort, Annual Wormwood,qīnghāo (Chinese: 青蒿)
Artemisinin (Artemisinine, Qinghaosu)

Chemical Name:(3R,5aS,6R,8aS,9R,12S,12aR)-octahydro-3,6,9-trimethyl -3,12-epoxy-12H-pyrano[4,3-j]-1,2-benzodioxepin-10(3H)-one
Molecular Formula:C15H22O5

Mol. Wt.: 282.332

Molecular Structure:

Dihydroartemisinin (DHA,Dihydroqinghaosu)

Chemical Name:(3R,5aS,6R,8aS,9R,12S,12aR)-decahydro-3,6,9-trimethyl-3,12- epoxy-12H-pyrano[4,3-j]-1,2-benzodioxepin-10-ol
Cas No.: 71939-50-9

Molecular Formula: C15H24O5

Mol. Wt.: 284.34806

Molecular Structure:

Artesunate (AS)

Chemical Name:/
Cas No.: 83507-69-1, 80155-81-3 (sodium salt)

Molecular Formula: C19H28O8

Mol. Wt.: 384.421

Molecular Structure:

Artemether (It is an ether derivative of artemisinin.)

Chemical Name:/
Cas No.: 71963-77-4

Molecular Formula: C16H26O5

Mol. Wt.: 298.374

Molecular Structure:

 

 Artemisia annua,also known as Sweet Wormwood, Sweet Annie, Sweet Sagewort or Annual Wormwood, qīnghāo (Chinese: 青蒿), is a common type of wormwood that is native to temperate Asia, but naturalized throughout the world. It is primarily cultivated in south-west China now for medical uses. It has fern-like leaves, bright yellow flowers, and a camphor-like scent. Its height averages about 2 m tall, and the plant has a single stem, alternating branches, and alternating leaves which range 2.5–5 cm in length. It is cross-pollinated by wind or insects. It is a diploid plant with chromosome number, 2n=18.

Artemisia annua was used by Chinese herbalists in ancient times to treat fever (not specifically malaria) and many other ills including malaria. In 1971, Chinese scientists demonstrated that the plant extracts had antimalarial activity in primate models, and in 1972 the active ingredient, artemisinin (formerly referred to as arteannuin), was isolated and its chemical structure described. Artemisinin may be extracted using a low boiling point solvent such as diethylether and is found in the glandular trichomes of the leaves, stems, and inflorescences, and it is concentrated in the upper portions of plant within new growth.

Artemisinin(pronounced /ɑ?t?'misin?n/) is a drug used to treat multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. The compound (a sesquiterpene lactone) is isolated from the plant Artemisia annua. Not all plants of this species contain artemisinin. Apparently it is only produced when the plant is subjected to certain conditions, most likely biotic or abiotic stress. It can be synthesized from artemisinic acid. The drug is derived from a herb used in Chinese traditional medicine, though it is usually chemically modified and combined with other medications.

Use of the drug by itself as a monotherapy is explicitly discouraged by the World Health Organization as there have been signs that malarial parasites are developing resistance to the drug. Combination therapies that include artemisinin are the preferred treatment for malaria and are both effective and well tolerated in patients. The drug is also being studied as a treatment for cancer.

Because artemisinin itself has physical properties such as poor bioavailability that limit its effectiveness, semi-synthetic derivatives of artemisinin, including dihydroartemisinin, artemether and artesunate, have been developed. However, their activity is not long lasting, with significant decreases in effectiveness after one to two hours. To counter this drawback, artemisinin is typically given with lumefantrine (also known as benflumetol) to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Lumefantrine has a half-life of about 3 to 6 days and prevents the disease from returning. The treatments are called "ACT" (artemisinin-based combination therapy); other examples are artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-mefloquine, artesunate-amodiaquine, and artesunate-sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. Recent trials have shown that these therapies are more than 90% effective, with a recovery from symptoms after three days, especially for the chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

There are a number of derivatives and analogues (Chemically modified analogues) within the artemisinin family:

  • Artesunate (water-soluble: for oral, rectal, intramuscular, or intravenous use)
  • Artemether (lipid-soluble: for oral, rectal or intramuscular use)
  • Dihydroartemisinin
  • Artelinic acid
  • Artenimol
  • Artemotil

There are also simplified analogs in preclinical research.

Dihydroartemisinin(or dihydroqinghaosu) is a drug used to treat malaria. Dihydroartemisinin is the active metabolite of all artemisinin compounds (artemisinin, artesunate, artemether, etc.) and is also available as a drug in itself.

Artesunate is prepared from dihydroartemisinin (DHA) by reacting it with succinic acid anhydride in basic medium. Artesunate is part of the artemisinin group of drugs that treat malaria. It is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin that is water-soluble and may therefore be given by injection. It is sometimes abbreviated AS.

Artemetheris an ether derivative of artemisinin. It is an antimalarial for the treatment of multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria.

The Artemisinin and its derivatives are derived from the leaf and the upper portions of Arteminsia annua L.

Benefits

• Parasite treatment

• Malaria treatment

• Cancer treatment (such as be of selectively toxic to some Breast Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Leukemia, and other cancer cells)

Mechanism

The proposed mechanism of action of artemisinin involves cleavage of endoperoxide bridges by iron producing free radicals (hypervalent iron-oxo species, epoxides, aldehydes, and dicarbonyl compounds) which damage biological macromolecules causing oxidative stress in the cells of the parasite.Malaria is caused by the Apicomplexan, Plasmodium falciparum, which largely resides in red blood cells and itself contains iron-rich heme-groups (in the from of hemozoin).

Safety

Artemisinin is safe. Well-documented clinical uses of Artemisinin and derivatives have shown few insignificant side effects.

In human beings, there are very few reports of adverse effects except for one case of first-degree heart block, but findings in rats' studies are causing controversy. Intra-muscular arteether at 25-mg/ Kg/ day resulted in rats' brainstem pathology with damage to the auditory nuclei.  Parenteral artemether in the treatment of cerebral malaria in Gambien children shows a prolonged recovery from coma and post-treatment convulsions than the same treatment with quinine.

Artemisinins are generally well tolerated at the doses used to treat malaria. The drugs that are used in combination therapies can contribute to the adverse effects that are experienced by those undergoing treatment. Adverse effects in patients with acute falciparum malaria treated with artemisinin derivatives tend to be higher. The side effects from the artemisinin class of medications are similar to the symptoms of malaria: nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and dizziness.

High doses of artemisinin can produceneurotoxicity such as gait disturbances, loss of spinal and pain response, respiratory depression, and ultimately cardiopulmonary arrest in large animals.

Dosage

• For malaria, the typical dose is 3000 mg administered over a 3 to 5 day period.

• For cancer, the typical dose is 200mg-1000mg per day
• Consult physicians for different condition specifics.

GNI’s Artemisinin, Dihydroartemisinin, Artesunate and Artemether Features and Benefits:

Artemisinin and its derivatives are a series productsof GNI's most competitive ones, with many advantages as list in the following, produced as our patent-pending process and know-how technology from Artemisia annua L. leaf and its upper portions.

• High purity: over 99%

• NO solvent - residual free

• Pesticide-free

• Crystal white in appearance

• High anti-bacteria, and longer shelf life

Product Specifications:

99.5% Artemisnin HPLC,

99% Dihydroartemisinin HPLC,

99% Artesunate HPLC,

99% Artemether HPLC

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